A Polish man was also arrested for alleged espionage along with the Chinese citizen "who is a businessman working for an important telecommunications firm", said Maciej Wasik, deputy head of Poland's special services, quoted by the PAP news agency.
In December, a Czech cyber-security agency warned against using the software and hardware of Huawei and fellow Chinese company ZTE, saying they posed a threat to state security.
The two have not pleaded guilty and are refusing to provide testimony in the case, the state broadcaster said. If convicted, the pair could face up to 10 years imprisonment.
The U.S. criticism has led to a number of Western countries and companies to review whether they should allow Huawei's equipment to be used in their telecoms networks.
Two Huawei employees have been arrested in Poland for allegedly spying on the Chinese government's behalf. They took "documents and electronic data" from Huawei's office, said The Wall Street Journal.More news: Man charged over suspicious packages sent to embassies
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Huawei has been blocked in the USA since 2012, when a House Intelligence Committee report found it was a security risk and recommended that the government and private companies stop buying its network equipment.
State TV identified the Polish man as Piotr D., and said he was a high-ranking employee at the Internal Security Agency until 2011, where he served as deputy director in the department of information security.
"We are aware of the situation, and we are looking into it".
The Chinese ministry of foreign affairs said it was "greatly concerned" and that it expects Poland to "justly" manage the case.
"We have no comment for the time being".
In December, Canadian authorities arrested a top Huawei executive, Meng Wanzhou, at the behest of US authorities as part of an investigation into alleged violations of USA trade sanctions. Orange told the AP it did not know if the suspicions against its employee were related to his work at Orange. USA prosecutors have accused her of misleading banks about transactions linked to Iran, putting the banks at risk of violating US sanctions.