The train was carrying 362 passengers and was headed to Istanbul when five carriages came off the tracks, the transport ministry said in a statement.
"24 our citizens have lost their lives [in the accident]", said Recep Akdag in a press briefing in Tekirdag.
The train, with over 360 people on board, was travelling from the Edirne region on the Greek and Bulgarian borders to Istanbul's Halkali station when six of its carriages derailed in the Tekirdag region.
The train had departed from Corlu, a district in the northwestern Turkish province of Tekirdag, about 120 km (75 miles) west of Istanbul.
President Tayyip Erdogan's office said he had received information from the ministers of transport and interior about the incident, and sent his condolences.
Over 100 ambulances have been sent to the scene, TRT Haber said, quoting Health Ministry Undersecretary Eyup Gumus.More news: Get 3 months of paid Amazon Prime Video channels for free
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Other footage showed several wagons laying on their side and emergency personnel forced to walk to reach the crash site.
Erdogan said all state institutions were "using every means available to help", vowing that there would be a comprehensive investigation into the "tragic accident", the presidency said.
Turkey's audiovisual authority RTUK later said the government has issued a temporary ban on broadcasting images from the scene. This was lifted on Monday morning.
Over the past few years, Turkish cities have been building high-speed rail lines to replace the country's ageing network.
"A suburban train had an accident due to a landfall".